当新德里的雾霾遇上北京的蓝天

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India should look to China for its pollution solution

For the past several days, India’s capital city New Delhi has remained shrouded in smog. British media likened the city to a “gas chamber.” According to figures released by the US Embassy in India, particulate levels were over 19 times the World Health Organization’s (WHO) safe maximum.

印度首都新德里连日来被浑浊的雾霾笼罩,英国媒体形容其“宛如毒气室”。根据美国驻印度使馆公布的消息,新德里空气中的微尘含量比世卫组织规定的标准高出19倍。

A UN report revealed that India is home to 14 of the world’s 15 most polluted cities. Surprisingly, air pollution claims over one million Indians annually, according to multiple Western institutions.

另据联合国报告,世界上15个污染最严重的城市中有14个在印度。西方多家机构还引用了一个更触目惊心的数据,说每年有100多万印度人因空气污染死亡。

Indian netizens cited China’s accomplishments in air pollution control when complaining about the Indian government and its failure to curbpollution. Beijing’s blue skies and autumn scenery have stood out in stark contrast to New Delhi.

不少印度网友在吐槽政府治理雾霾不力时,都提到了中国治理雾霾的成效。这几天,中国的首都北京蓝天白云、秋色宜人,确实和新德里形成了鲜明的对比。

Since 2013, China began an unprecedented battle to protect its blue skies. At that time, many Chinese cities, including Beijing, were choking on smog, and PM 2.5 data released by the US Embassy was a hot topic on the Chinese internet, triggering discontentand complaints. Had someone predicted then that air pollution would have been controlled within five years, they would have been considered a big talker.

中国在2013年打响了史无前例的“蓝天保卫战”。当时包括北京在内的多座城市已经有数年遭受重霾污染。同样是美国使馆公布的PM2.5数据,常成为中国互联网上的热点话题,引发大量的不满和抱怨。如果那时有一个人预测说,中国的空气污染在5年后就会得到有效遏制,大家都会认为他在吹牛。

Just a few years ago, when China was hit by smog, questions and doubts swirled on the country’s development model. The success that China had achieved was also questioned by the media. However, those claims that use pollution to refute China’s political system are losing ground when the results of China’s efforts to combat air pollution become obvious and India, by contrast, is enshrouded in smog which is even worse than what China once suffered.

在雾霾最严重的那几年,连中国发展的模式都受到了各种质疑,相应地,中国发展的成绩也在舆论场被打了折扣。后来印度的雾霾日渐严重,中国的雾霾则逐渐变轻,这种用雾霾来否定中国体制的流行论调才逐渐蔫了下去。

Developing countries will face challenges posed by smog after entering different development stages. But the China vs. India paradigmindicates that different political systems yield various results when reducing pollution. In the battle to maintain blue skies, the advantages of the Chinese system are exemplified.

显然,雾霾是很多发展中国家在一定发展阶段都要面临的严峻挑战。但中国和印度的这组案例说明,不同体制对雾霾的治理效果确有很大区别。不可否认,在这场“蓝天保卫战”中,中国体制体现出了较为明显的优越性。

The Chinese government quickly responded to public demand for reducing air pollution and implemented concrete action that showed favorable results. The China Air Quality Improvement Report 2013-2018 released by the Ministry of Ecology and Environment in June said that in the practice of air pollution control in the past six years, China had explored and formed a model which highlights government’s dominantrole and participation from enterprises and the general public. This is a masterpiece plan in the history of air pollution control.

民之所望,施政所向。对老百姓前些年要求治理空气污染的呼声,中国政府快速做出了回应,且言必信行必果。生态环境部今年6月发布的《中国空气质量改善报告(2013—2018年)》总结称,在最近6年的大气污染治理实践中,中国探索形成了“政府主导、部门联动、企业尽责、公众参与”的中国模式。这是一套超大手笔的组合拳。

On the contrary, although the Indian government has responded to public discontent, the results have remained unsatisfactory. Due to the fundamental weaknesses of its political system, India’s governments, enterprises, and society could not team up in a unified force in the smog control campaign. Political parties wrangle among each other, but they only care about votes. Without firm determination, strong mobilization, and executive abilities, it would be impossible to defeat such pollution.

反观印度,虽然民怨也很大,政府也相继做出了一些回应,但效果如何大家都看到了。由于体制的原因,印度政府、企业和社会在治理雾霾上很难形成强大合力,不同党派相互扯皮,政客们真正在乎的只是选票。没有壮士断腕的决心,没有一呼百应的号召力,没有雷厉风行的执行力,要想制服雾霾自然很难。

It’s worth pointing out that China has maintained economic growth over 6 percent while making strides to curb pollution. The overall power generation has increased, and the level of modernization continues to improve, but China has achieved a skillful balance between environmental protection and economic development. This is very commendable. India’s GDP is only one-fifth of China’s, and two countries have seen a similar economic growth in recent years. However, India’s energy consumption is much lower than China. The smog crisis in India provides a negative example of environmental protection for the world.

值得一提的是,中国在大力治理雾霾的这几年,经济保持了6%以上的增长,整体发电量在持续增加,现代化水平不断提高,中国在环保和经济发展之间实现了难能可贵的平衡。印度经济总量只有中国1/5,而近几年经济增速和中国大致持平,能源消耗量远低于中国。它的空气污染这么重,为世界的环保提供了另一个案例。

Both China and India are victims of air pollution and two countries should join hands to create clear blue skies. What China has achieved offers valuable experience to India, while China could also learn from India’s plight. China and India mirror one another, and there is plenty of room for cooperation.

中印都是雾霾的受害者,本应站在同一条战线上。中国冲在前面,为印度留下了有价值的参考。而印度今天的困境,也有助于中国反思总结。中印对彼此都是一面镜子,也存在很大的合作空间。

本文系环球网、环球时报英文网站社评。

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